By Pragya Agarwal (auth.), Max J. Egenhofer, Christian Freksa, Harvey J. Miller (eds.)
This part supplies an outline of notions used all through this learn. present achievements in constructing action-centered ontologies also are mentioned. 2.1 Ontologies within the context of knowledge extraction and retrieval, other kinds of ontologies may be unique : • Top-level ontologies describe very basic strategies like area and time, now not counting on a specific area, • area ontologies and activity ontologies describe the vocabulary regarding a everyday area or type of activity, detailing the phrases utilized in the top-level ontology, • software ontologies describe the strategies that rely on the actual area and activity inside of a particular task. a number of investigations were carried out to carry activities (tasks) to endure on - tologies. between them are Chandrasekaran et al.  and Mizoguchi et al.  within the fields of AI and data Engineering. For the geospatial area, Kuhn  and Raubal and Kuhn  have tried to aid human activities in ontologies for transportation. Acknowledging the significance of human activities within the geographic area, a learn workshop was once held in 2002, bringing jointly specialists from diff- ent disciplines to proportion the data and paintings in this factor . Camara , one of many workshop contributors, has proposed that action-driven spatial ontologies are shaped through classification thought, for the case of emergency motion plans.